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Douglas Fox, American University, presented different possible routes for producing bio-sourced PIN flame retardants: cellulose (from wood and forest by-products), seaweed, chitin (from crustaceans or insects), phytase (non-digestible phosphorus storage molecule in seeds), tannic acid, taurine.
Cellulose is readily available, cheap to extract and is an effective char generator, but is poorly mixable with most polymers. Also, work with lignins shows that the char generated tends to peel away exposing the polymer to the fire. Cellulose processed into a thermoplastic carbohydrate shows promise however, achieving a 2/3 reduction in peak heat release rate in PEMA (poly ethyl methyl acrylate).