Sabyasachi Gaan, EMPA Switzerland presented innovation in DOPO-derived (phosphorus based) PIN flame retardants. Products already developed include a DOPO-derivative for polyamide (PA6), now industrialised by Litrax for use in carpets. This is effective at <10% loading. A DOPO-PEPA (pentaerythritol phosphate derivative) is being developed with Metadynea for use in polyester-based technical textiles and films, which can be mixed directly during spinning, has low water uptake and inhibits oxygenation of the polymer so facilitating recycling. Research is underway to develop a DOPO derivative (DVVPO with vinyl bonds) which can be reacted or polymerised during extrusion, so ensuring durability and no migration. All of these DOPO derivatives have been tested and show good toxicity profiles: absence of cell toxicity, inflammation or effects on DNA or reactive oxygen in cells.
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