A. Sut, Berlin, PhD, 2016, analyses pyrolysis and fire residue (char) chemistry of multi-component PIN FR** systems in styrene-based thermoplastic elastomer (SEBS)* and in a DGEBA expoxy resin.
Combinations of phosphorus PIN FRs with metal synergists gave good fire performance results, combining gas-phase action with generation of a graphite-like carbonaceous protective char layer. This included inorganics such as magnesium, zinc, silicon as well as aluminium phosphates, silicon dioxide. In the SEBS, a 30% loading of PIN FR combinations achieved a 85% reduction in peak heat release and UL94 horizontal burning classification. In the epoxy, a 20% PIN FR combination loading showed no loss of phosphorus in fire: the phosphorus was conserved in the minerals in the char layer.
“Fire residues design: the chemistry behind synergistic effects in multicomponent polymeric systems”, A. Sut, Freie Universität Berlin PhD thesis 2017 http://www.diss.fu-berlin.de/diss/receive/FUDISS_thesis_000000104313 * styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene block copolymer (SEBS). ** PIN FRs used were aluminium diethylphosphinate, ammonium polyphosphate, magnesium hydroxide, zinc borate, dimethyl- and methlvinyl siloxane, poly(phenylene oxide), melamine poly(magnesium phosphate), boehmite, melamine polyphosphate.