Ehsan Kalali, IMDEA Madrid, summarised research into use of different nano-forms of minerals as synergists for PIN flame retardants, including ferrocene (nano iron oxide F2O3), layered double hydroxides (LDH) with nano nickel hydroxide, nano cobalt hydroxide, zinc cobalt. These inorganic nano compounds, at doses of up to 5%, have been shown to be highly effective in reducing smoke emissions (in some cases, nearly 60% less smoke) and in improving fire performance (e.g. reduction in peak heat release rate pHRR). It is hypothesised that these nano particles act in the gas phase by rapidly converting to char the flammable volatile compounds released by polymers in fire (by condensation or catalysis), thus preventing these gases burning.
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