De-Yi Wang, IMDEA Materials Institute Madrid summarised different investigations underway looking at different novel mineral flame retardant and smoke suppression synergists: boron nitride nanosheets, iron hydroxide nanoparticles and functionalised halloysite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral), nanotube (HNT), graphene (used for structural strength), copper and iron compounds (e.g. in nano-form ferrocene), combined with nano-structures (layered double hydroxides). These were tested in epoxy resins, thermoplastics, elastomers and thermosets. In some cases, time to ignition was increased or heat release reduced. In particular, reductions of smoke emission were achieved, including at low doses of metal compounds. The mechanisms of smoke suppression are discussed, included catalysis of aromatic carbon compounds to form linked, stable structures in chars (so making a barrier to smoke emission), the reduction of polyaromatic carbon compounds in fire and the catalytic degradation of soot.
IMDEA Materials Institute Madrid
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