Bio-based flame retardants were prepared by reacting phosphorus into the hydroxyl groups of phloroglucinol, a bio-based material produced by bacterial fermentation of sugar (glucose), using three different organic phosphorus molecules.
The phosphorus PIN FRs showed good compatibility with epoxy resin polymers, at phosphorus contents up to 4%, and significantly improved fire performance. With 3% phosphorus content peak heat release was reduced nearly 50% compared to epoxy thermoset without FR addition (peak burn temperature 400°C instead of nearly 700°C).
“Synthesis of biobased phosphate flame retardants: Characterization of flame retardancy on epoxy thermosets”, R. Ménard et al., Pure Appl. Chem. (De Gruyter) 2014 http://www.degruyter.com/dg/viewarticle/j$002fpac.2014.86.issue-11$002fpac-2014-0703$002fpac-2014-0703.xml