China industrial organophosphorus FR discharges: analysis of 12 organophosphorus flame retardants and industrial production intermediates in 40 rivers entering the Bohai Sea, China: 3 chlorinated alkyl phosphates (TCPP, TCEP, TDCPP), 8 non-halogenated alkyl phosphates (TiBP, TBP, TBEP, THP, TPeP, TEHP), 2 non halogenated aryl phosphates (TPP, TCP) and the industrial intermediate TPPO. The most abundantly found substances were halogenated FRs (TCPP, TCEP), probably from the same source.
The authors identify these two FRs, along with the intermediate TPPO as priority substances to address emissions, emphasising that the region is heavily industrialised and suggest that the pollution is probably from chemical manufacturing plants in the river basins.“Occurrence and spatial distribution of organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers in 40 rivers draining into the Bohai Sea, north China”, R. Wang et al., Environmental Pollution 198 (2015) 172-178 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.12.037
Aryl and alkyl phosphorus FRs: in a recent publication, 9 organophosphorus FRs were tested, of which 3 were chlorinated (TCEP, TCPP, TDCPP), 4 aryl phosphates (TBP, TBEP, TPrP, TEP) and 2 alkyl phosphates (TPhP, CDP). Acute aquatic toxicity on fish embryos showed to correlate to hydrophobicity. The 2 alkyl phosphates were also tested for developmental effects, with CDP (cresyl diphenyl phosphate) showing more serious impacts.“Aryl organophosphate flame retardants induced cardiotoxicity during zebrafish embryogenesis: by disturbing expression of the transcriptional regulators”, Z. Du et al., Aquatic Toxicology 161 (2015) 25-32.
KEMI recommendations for REACH: The Swedish Chemicals Agency, KEMI, has published proposals for developing REACH, the European Chemicals Regulation, and its implementation. This is in response to a Swedish Government mandate. The Agency “considers REACH to be a major step forward in the protection of health and the environment” and underlines that developments should include chemicals policy definition as well as technical implementation. The agency proposes to better manage the risks of groups of chemicals and expresses concern that substitution of high-risk chemicals should not be by closely related chemicals with similar hazardous properties, considering that “This has happened, for example, in the groups of brominated flame retardants”.“Developing REACH and improving its efficiency – an action plan”, KEMI Swedish Chemicals Agency Report 2/15 ISSN 0284-1185: http://www.kemi.se/Documents/Publikationer/Trycksaker/Rapporter/Report-2-15-REACH.pdf
EPA database of chemicals and usages: The US Environmental Protection Agency online data base, CPCat, groups data categorising the uses and functions of more than 43 000 chemicals, as presented recently by Dionisio et al. The objective is to provide information to support prioritisation of assessment of human exposure potential for chemicals.“Exploring Consumer Exposure Pathways and Patterns of Use for Chemicals in the Environment”, K. Dionisio, Environment, Toxicol. Rep. (2015), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.12.009