Bio-sourced phosphorus ester PIN FRs
Flame-retarding phosphorus esters were produced from bio-sourced raw materials: starch and castor oil. Isosorbide, derived from starch, and 10-undecenoic acid from castor oil were combined with phosphorus to produce four different complex phosphorus compounds.
Thermal degradation of these compounds was tested, showing release of phosphorus acid, a known char former in polymers enabling solid-phase fire protection. The phosphates showed easier phosphorus acid release than the phosphonate or phosphinate compounds.“Thermal degradation of phosphorus esters derived from isosorbide and 10-undecenoic acid”, B. Howell & Y. Daniel, J Therm Anal Calorim (Springer), March 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10973-015-4487-2