Very low levels of phosphorus ester FRs were found in air over the Northern China Sea. Total concentration of nine P-ester FRs analysed (TCEP, TCPPs, TDCPP, TiBP, TnBP, TEHP, TPP, TPPO, TCPs) was 47 – 161 pico grammes/m3 in airborne particles. None of the FRs were detectable in the gas phase. Chlorinated P- esters made up 66 – 84% of the FR content.
Environmental breakdown of flame retardants: an assessment of photochemical and microbial degradation concludes that more data is needed on breakdown on recent brominated flame retardants (introduced in place of banned or curtailed substances), including regarding degradation of polymer brominated FRs, identification of breakdown products, radical formation and transformation indoors.
New alternative brominated FRs were tested for teratogenicity and reproductive toxicity using zebrafish. At 10 µM concentration, PBP-AE (ATE = allyl 2.4.6-tribromophenyl ether) showed no effects, TBP-DBPE (DPTE = 2,3-dibromopropyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether), DBE-DCBH (TBECH = 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane) and TBP-BAE (BATE = 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenylether) inhibited hatching and/or induced abnormalities in offspring.
TBOEP effects on Daphnia: the ethyl phosphorus FR TBOEP (tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate) was tested for chronic toxicity on D. magna (21 days) at 15 – 1500 µg/l. There were no significant effects on growth, survival or reproduction (compared to zero dosage control). Analysis showed that transcription was modified for a number of genes related to e.g. protein or energy metabolism.“Occurrence and dry deposition of organophosphate esters in atmospheric particles over the northern South China Sea”, Lai et al., Chemosphere 127 (195-200), 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653515001174
“Scientists find link between flame retardants and obesity” http://medicalxpress.com/news/2015-03-scientists-link-flame-retardants-obesity.html
“Flame retardants found to cause metabolic, liver problems” http://medicalxpress.com/news/2015-02-flame-retardants-metabolic-liver-problems.html
“Photochemical and Microbial Transformation of Emerging Flame Retardants: Cause for Concern?”, D. Chen et al., Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 34, No. 4, 687-699, April, 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc.2858/abstract
“In silico and biological analysis of anti-androgen activity of the brominated flame retardants ATE, BATE and DPTE in zebrafish”, A. Pradhan et al., Chemosphere in press 2015 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0009279715001222 and “The brominated flame retardant TBECH activates the zebrafish (Danio rerio) androgen receptor, alters gene transcription and causes developmental disturbances”, A. Pradhan et al., Aquatic Toxicology, vols. 142–143 (63-72), 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166445X13001938
“Chronic toxicity evaluation of the flame retardant tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) using Daphnia magna transcriptomic response”, M. Giraudo et al., Chemosphere 132 (159-165), 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653515002386