Novel phosphorus-based PIN FRs were developed based on the tetrahedral four carbon ring molecule adamantine, which offers a good ecotoxicological profile, high thermal and oxidative stability and good polymer compatibility. One to four phenyl phosphorus molecules were reacted onto adamantine and tested for physical properties and fire performance in PCA (polycarbonate).
The 4-P (tetrakis(diphenyl phosphorus adamantine) TKDPaD) showed the best flame retardancy (UL- V0 at 8% weight loading) and good thermal stability. The phosphorus adamantine PIN FRs showed to protect polycarbonate from fire by condensed phase action (char formation) but also slightly by gaseous phase action.
“Novel halogen-free flame retardants based on adamantane for polycarbonate”, Royal Society of Chemistry RSC Advances 5, 2015, S-Q. Fu et al. http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2015/ra/c5ra10887j#!divAbstract