This new 419 page ‘practical handbook’ presents all current commercially available non-halogenated flame retardant technologies as well as systems which are currently under development and near commercialisation. It is edited by leading experts Alexander Morgan and Charles Wilkie, with an operational approach, focusing on how to use PIN FRs and features written by industrial and chemical experts who apply PIN FR technology to polymers for fire safety.
James Mitchell, Solvay Engineering Plastics, introduces the history and trends in non-halogenated FR polymers, explaining why PIN FRs have come to dominate in engineering plastics. He summarises the drivers for replacing older halogenated FRs by PIN products, including “toxicology or assumed toxic effects and environmental concerns” of halogenated FRs, ease of selection for product manufacturers (“blanket ban” on halogens), low fume toxicity and density, and increasingly, comparable performance.
Sergei Levchik (ICL-IP America), Reiner Sauerwein (Nabeltec) and Martin Klatt (BASF) present the main families of PIN flame retardants, respectively phosphorus, inorganic and nitrogen based. In each case, the different PIN FR types are presented and then detail is explored of applications (use sectors, polymers), impacts on polymer material properties, aspects of formulation, compounding and integration into polymers, and a summary of trends and challenges.
Günter Beyer (Kabelwerk Eupen, Belgium) and Tie Lan (Nanocor, Illinois) present nanocomposites (in particular nano- and organo- clays, carbon nano tubes CNT), a synergist for PIN FRs with wide and increasing areas of application.
Sophie Duquesne (ENSC Lille, France) and Thomas Futterer (Budenheim) present PIN intumescent systems used for fire performance of thermoplastic and thermoset materials, for fire protection of steel and other structural materials, and for fire protection of polymers and composites.
Mert Kilinc (Philips Consumer Lifestyle), Kevin Shen (Rio Tinto Minerals), present other types of PIN flame retardants, respectively silicon and boron based. Alexander Morgan (Univ. Dayton USA), Paul Cusack (ITRI Innovation, UK) and Charles Wilkie (Marquette Univ., Milwaukee) present other PIN FR chemistries, including metal oxides and complexes, sulphur-based, organic carbonates, tin based / stannates and engineering non-halogenated FR solutions such as barrier fabrics and coatings.
They also assess key probable future trends and directions:
- Polymeric FRs and reactive FRs, which both ensure that the FR is bound into the polymer and cannot be lost to air or water during use or end-of-life handling
- Compatibility with polymer recycling
- PIN FRs derived from sustainable feedstocks and bio-based materials
- PIN FRs in waste-to-energy (incineration) and waste-to-chemical (depolymerisation, pyrolysis …) processes
- Environmental decomposition
- Directions of experimental methodology needed to develop future PIN FRs
“Non-Halogenated Flame Retardant Handbook”, edited by Alexander Morgan and Charles Wilkie, published 2014 jointly by Wiley and Scrivener, 419 pages, ISBN 978-1-118-68624-9