FRs in TVs: Two US environmental NGOs have published analysis of housings of 12 TV sets purchased in Washington State USA, with media presentation stating that 11 contained “flame retardants … up to 33%” and that two contained Deca-BDE despite this being banned in TV sets sold in Washington State (Samsung, Element). In fact, only six flame retardants were tested. Four are brominated and are presented by these organisations as “high concern”: Deca-BDE, DBDPE, TTBP-TAZ, 2,4,6-TBP. Two are aryl phosphates, presented as “moderate concern”: BPA-BDPP, RBDPP). One TV set showed none of these detectable (Insignia brand). The FR found at highest levels was TTBP-TAZ, up to nearly 31% by weight. GreenScreen is referred as a tool to identify safer alternatives and avoid regrettable substitutes. In a related interview in SpecialChem, Marc Lebel, FRX Polymers, explains that brominated FRs can be replaced by other chemicals which are not toxic, including polymeric FRs.
“Toxic Flame Retardant Chemicals Found in TVs. Flame Retardant Banned Decade Ago Still Being Used in TVs”, Toxic-Free Future, 19 Sept. 2017 https://toxicfreefuture.org/pr-flame-retardants-tvs/
“Tests Prove Toxic FRs in TV Linked to Bio-accumulation” SpecialChem Polymer Additives 2 Nov. 2017 https://polymer-additives.specialchem.com/news/industry-news/toxic-frs-tv-bioaccumulation-000189230
Deca-BDE = Decabromodiphenyl ether. DBDPE = Decabromodiphenyl Ethane. TTBP-TAZ = 2,4,6-tris(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine. 2,4,6-TBP = 2,4,6-Tribromophenol. BPA-BDPP = bisphenol A bis(diphenylphosphate). RBDPP = resorcinol bis(diphenylphosphate).
Biomonitoring of organophosphates: Nine flame retardants or metabolites were analysed in human urine from 2 666 samples representative of the US population >6 year (NHANES cohort). Limits of detection were 0.05 – 0.16 µg/l. Five were found in >60% of samples (chlorinated: BDCIPP, BCEP, BCIPP and non halogenated aryl phosphates DPHP, DNBP). Four were found in ≤ 13% of samples (non-halogenated DpCP, DoCP, DBzP and brominated TBBA). No indications are given concerning possible health implications of levels found. Urine concentrations found tended to be higher in women and in children. It is noted that DPHP may be related to use of TPHP in nail varnish, not related to flame retardants. The authors recommend further such studies to assess changes over time.
“Exposure to organophosphate flame retardant chemicals in the U.S. general population: Data from the 2013–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey”, M. Ospina et al., Environment International 110 (2018) 32–41 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.10.001
BDCIPP = bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate. BCEP = bis-2-chloroethyl phosphate.
BCIPP = bis-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate. DPHP = diphenyl phosphate.
DNBP = di-n-butyl phosphate. DcCP = di-p-cresylphosphate. DoCP = di-o-cresylphosphate. DBzP = dibenzyl phosphate. TBBA = 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoic acid.