A 25-page review identifies different biomass compounds with potential as PIN flame retardant solutions, with high availability and appropriate properties, and summarises recent progress in developing bio-based PIN fire safety solutions.
Compounds discussed are: cellulose (nature’s most abundant polymer), hemicellulose (in plant cell walls), chitosan (nature’s second most abundant polysaccharide, readily available in seafood wastes such as crustacean shells), other saccharides (starch, cyclodextrin, isosorbide, tea saponin, tartaric acid from wine production …), lignin and other bio-based aromatic compounds (phloroglucinol, levulinic acid, cardanol), DNA, proteins, phytic acid and vegetable oils (which can be reacted to produce polymers with or without flame retardant compounds). Many of these enhance flame retardancy by contributing to char formation; others such as DNA and phytic acid contain phosphorus and/or nitrogen. The authors conclude that the wide range of bio-compounds available offers considerable potential for the development of solutions adapted to different combinations with PIN flame retardant components, polymers and applications.
“Bio-based flame retardants: When nature meets fire protection”, L. Costes et al., Materials Science and Engineering R 117 (2017) 1–25 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mser.2017.04.001