Tests using a pilot-scale incinerator comparable to a municipal waste incinerator with flue gas cleaning showed that dioxin and furan emissions from wastes containing 1% of four different phosphorus flame retardants were no higher than incinerating municipal waste only, with emissions conform to Japanese and international BAT standards (Best Available Technology). The phosphorus FRs were eliminated (>99.999%) in the incineration process.
The phosphorus present in the FR molecules was transferred mainly to bottom ash, meaning that there was low generation of volatile phosphorus gas compounds.
The four phosphorus FRs tested were tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCIPP), diethylene glycol bis(di(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) (DEG-BDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP). The incinerator used has a primary rotating kiln, secondary combustion chamber, dry bag filter and wet scrubbing flue cleaning.
“Pilot-scale incineration of wastes with high content of chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants used as alternatives for PBDEs”, H. Matsukami et al., Japan, Science of the Total Environment 493 (2014) 672–681 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969714009188