Flame retardants are a key protection technology to reduce the specific problem of lithium-ion battery fires. Fires in lithium ion batteries (LIB) are uncommon, but are of concern because such batteries are ubiquitous, with increasingly large units such as in electricity storage or electric vehicles. LIB fires pose specific risks in terms of initiation, spread, duration, toxicity and extinction. Fire risks in LIB can result in massive product recalls. The authors note that significant research has been engaged in battery thermal runaway and battery components but is lacking concerning fire protection at the module scale, preventing spread between battery cells and units. Key protection technologies cited include flame retardants included in battery electrolytes and fire-resistant separations between cells (compartmentalisation). The authors underline the need for fire statistics, for full-scale fire testing and for development of LIB fire safety standards.
“Review—Meta-Review of Fire Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries: Industry Challenges and Research Contributions”, L. Bravo Diaz, Electrochemical Society, 2020 167 090559 https://doi.org/10.1149/1945-7111/aba8b9