Carbon-encapsulated metal oxides with PFRs reduced heat release and smoke emission in polyurethane foam. Carbon-encapsulated metal oxides were prepared by reacting iron and copper (hydr)oxides with sodium alginate at 170°C, centrifuge separation and drying, to produce iron, copper and iron-copper hybrids. Fire performance was tested for neat rigid polyurethane foam (PUF) from polyether polyol, PIN FR PUF with 5% APP (ammonium polyphosphate) and 5% DMMP (dimethylmethylphosphonate) and PIN FR PUF with 0.1 – 5% of each of the carbon metal hybrids. The PIN FRs reduce peak heat release rate of the polyurethane foam by around 40%, and the metal oxides show to be effective smoke suppressants.
“The influence of carbon-encapsulated transition metal oxide microparticles on reducing toxic gases release and smoke suppression of rigid polyurethane foam composites”, Z. Xu et al., Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 131, April 2020, 105815, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2020.105815