70-page review by Public Safety Institute NIPV on fire safety of car parks housing electric vehicles. Internal combustion engine vehicles in car parks pose specific fire safety issues, as shown by recent major car park fires (e.g. Paris, Liverpool, Stavanger, The Hague, Twente, see document p.11 and more recently Luton, see below). These risks are increased with electric vehicles which can contain more plastics and other flammable materials. Batteries in EVs bring specific new risks because the charged battery can contain twice as much potential energy as a full fuel tank, and because of electrical risks, specific toxic gas emissions and difficult to extinguish battery fires (tendency to reignite). The NIPV report discusses fire prevention and repression measures, car park design, fire fighting, as well as fire scenarios and data and research needs.
“Fire safety of indoor car parks accommodating electrically powered vehicles”, NIPV (Netherlands Institute for Public Safety), September 2023 https://nipv.nl/wp-content/uploads/2023/09/20210715-NIPV-Fire-safety-of-indoor-car-parks-accommodating-electrically-powered-vehicles.pdf