US environmental health NGO “The Ecology Center” (Michigan) has published analysis of 600 components (fabric, foam, structural plastics) from 25 car seats (3 from the EU, 22 from the USA). Over 30% of seats showed bromine content (presumed to be FR), over 20% fluorine (presumed to be PFAS) and over 50% phosphorus (presumed to be phosphorus FRs). Analysed suggested that the most widely used phosphorus FRs were PMMMP (see acronym list below). The NGO also identified that 42 car seats are marketed as free of FRs, noting that these tend to be the more expensive models. The NGO states that chlorine and bromine FRs are “known to have health and environmental consequences” but that there is “little information about whether (phosphorus FRs) might be harmful” and suggests that “the addition of the flame retardants is a less-expensive way of meeting the flammability requirements than using specialized fabrics that can do somore naturally … we support work for finding new methods for limiting fire with physical barriers and materials”.
“Toxic Chemicals Found in Child Car Seats”, Consumer Reports news item 1st August 2022 https://www.consumerreports.org/car-seats/toxic-chemicals-found-in-child-car-seats-a1143215776/
“Toxic inequities. How an Outdated Standard Leads to Toxics in Low-Cost Children’s Car Seats”, 24 page report, Ecology Center Healthy Stuff Lab https://www.ecocenter.org/our-work/healthy-stuff-lab/reports/toxic-inequities-2022-car-seat-report