Carbon microspheres modified with molybdenum reduced smoke and carbon monoxide emission from TPU polyurethane. Hollow carbon microspheres were synthesised using polyacrylic acid, ethyl orthosilicate and phenolic resin, then carbonised and acidified with phosphoric acid and then reacted with ammonium molybdate. The resulting molybdenum carbon microspheres were then blended into thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (TPU) at 4% loading. Peak heat release was reduced by 63% compared to neat TPU, peak smoke production rate by 52% and peak carbon monoxide production by 72%.
“Fabrication of hollow carbon spheres modified by molybdenum compounds towards toxicity reduction and flame retardancy of thermoplastic polyurethane”, T. Feng et al., Polym Adv Technol. 2021;1–15 https://doi.org/10.1002/pat.5550