Endocrine (EDC) effects of “replacement” FRs. Experimental data and endocrine modelling results were collected for 52 flame retardants considered to be possible replacement of brominated PBDE and HBCD FRs. Experimental data was found for less than half of the FRs (23 / 52). Of these: nine showed no EDC activity (EHDPP 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate, 2,4,6-tribromophenol, TEHP Tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate, TCEP Tris-2-chloroethyl phosphate, TEP Triethyl phosphate, DBPNG Dibromoneopentylglycol, PBEB Pentabromoethylbenzene, HBB Hexabromobenzene, TnPP Tri-n-propyl-phosphate) and a further eight showed “Weak evidence” of activity. Only seven FRs showed “Godo” or “Strong” evidence of EDC. Model predictions appear to have little correlation to experimental results for EDC. The authors conclude the need for further endocrine effect testing of FRs, possible future regulation and possible concerns about effects of combined exposure to mixtures of a number of FRs and other chemicals.
Developmental effects of brominated FRs. A mixture of tetra- and deca-BDE and HBCDD was fed to female rats during pregnancy and lactation. At a dose of 0.06 mg/kg body weight/day, estimated to be comparable to maximum human intake (ingestion of 100 mg/day of dust), resulted in significant premature development of mammary glands in female offspring.
Two triaryl P-ester FRs show behavioural impacts on zebrafish. Tris-cresyl phophate and cresyl diphenyl phosphate were tested at 5 and 25 µl/l (that is parts per billion), with c. 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide as a cosolvent, on adult zebrafish for 15 days. The pesticides cypermethrin and methomyl were tested similarly (these molecules do not contain phosphorus, but respectively chlorine and sulphur). Swimming strenth and swimming behaviour were affected with all of the chemicals, with higher impact at the higher dosage.
Replacing old fire-safe furniture reduces levels of FRs in household dust. FRs were analysed in household dust in 42 homes, before and (up to 18 months) after replacing fire-safety treated sofas (pre-2014 California TB117, that is furniture dating from 1975 to 2014) by non-FR furniture. Dust was collected on and around the furniture. Three brominated PBDEs, three chlorinated PFRs and one non-halogenated P-ester (triphenyl phosphate) were found in most homes and two non-halogenated P-FRs were not detected (TNBP, TPP). The detected FRs all showed lower levels in dust in nearly all homes after furniture replacement. pinfa notes that replacement with new FR furniture was not studied, so that it cannot be stated whether the lower FR levels in dust are due to changing to non-FR furniture or simply due to replacement of old furniture.
“Synthetic organic chemicals (flame retardants and pesticides) with neurotoxic potential induced behavioral impairment on zebrafish (Danio rerio): a non-invasive”, Z. Ren et al., Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2021 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13370-2
“In Utero and Lactational Exposure to an Environmentally Relevant Mixture of Brominated Flame Retardants Induces a Premature Development of the Mammary Glands”, R-J Gouesse et al., Tox. Sciences, 179(2), 2021, 206–219 https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfaa176
“Endocrine disrupting potential of replacement flame retardants – Review of current knowledge for nuclear receptors associated with reproductive outcomes”, L. Bajard et al., Environment International 153 (2021) 106550 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106550
“Do flame retardant concentrations change in dust after older upholstered furniture is replaced?”, K. Rodgers et al., Environment International 153 (2021) 106513 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106513