Review on organophosphate esters (OPEs): This review is based on nearly 200 publications, covering production/use, environmental occurrence and health / environmental toxicity of over 20 OPEs (mostly non-halogenated, some chlorinated or brominated) used as flame retardants, plasticisers or in other applications. The study notes that weak bonding to substrates and increasingly wide use is resulting in widespread environmental occurrence. Bioaccumulation / magnification in aquatic food webs can be significant, but is mitigated by breakdown. More research is identified as needed on OPEs in drinking water, toxicity / ecotoxicity (to avoid reliance on read-across from pesticides), processes of metabolic breakdown and possible occurrence and toxicity of metabolites.
“A review of environmental occurrence, analysis, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of organophosphate esters”, T. Bekele et al., Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2021 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15861-8